Diesel Engine Troubleshooting

HINO and TOYOTA DTC Chart

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P0006 Fuel shutoff valve “A” control circuit low voltage
P0007 Fuel shutoff valve “A” control circuit high voltage
P0016 Crankshaft position sensor, cylinder recognition sensor correlation
P0030 A/F sensor heater control circuit
P0031 A/F sensor heater control circuit low voltage
P0032 A/F sensor heater control circuit high voltage
P0036 A/F sensor heater control circuit
P0037 A/F sensor heater control circuit low voltage
P0045 Turbo/supercharger control solenoid open circuit
P0049 Turbo/supercharger overspeed
P0087 Fuel/rail pressure too low
P0088 Fuel/rail pressure too high
P0093 Fuel system leak maximum quantity detection
P0095 Intake air temperature sensor 2, circuit related
P0097 Intake air temperature sensor 2 circuit low voltage
P0098 Intake air temperature sensor 2 circuit high voltage
P0100 Mass Air Flow (MAF) meter, circuit related
P0101 MAF meter circuit range/performance
P0102 MAF meter circuit low input
P0103 MAF meter circuit high input
P0105 Boost pressure sensor, circuit related
P0107 Boost pressure sensor circuit low input
P0108 Boost pressure sensor circuit high input
P0112 Boost pressure sensor 1 circuit low voltage
P0113 Boost pressure sensor 1 circuit high voltage
P0115 Coolant temperature sensor, circuit related
P0117 Coolant temperature sensor circuit low voltage
P0118 Coolant temperature sensor circuit high voltage
P0119 Coolant temperature sensor circuit intermittent operation
P0120 Accelerator position sensor, switch “A” circuit related
P0121 Accelerator position sensor switch “A” circuit range/performance
P0122 Accelerator position sensor switch “A” circuit low voltage
P0123 Accelerator position sensor switch “A” circuit high voltage
P0124 Accelerator position sensor switch “A” circuit intermittent operation
P0168 Fuel temperature too high
P0180 Fuel temperature sensor, “A” circuit related
P0181 Fuel temperature sensor “A” circuit range/performance
P0182 Fuel temperature sensor “A” circuit low voltage
P0183 Fuel temperature sensor “A” circuit high voltage
P0184 Fuel temperature sensor “A” circuit intermittent operation
P0185 Fuel temperature sensor, “B” circuit related
P0186 Fuel temperature sensor “B” circuit range/performance
P0187 Fuel temperature sensor “B” circuit low voltage
P0188 Fuel temperature sensor “B” circuit high voltage
P0189 Fuel temperature sensor, “B” circuit intermittent operation
P0190 Rail pressure sensor, circuit related
P0191 Rail pressure sensor circuit range/performance
P0192 Rail pressure sensor circuit low voltage
P0193 Rail pressure sensor circuit high voltage
P0194 Rail pressure sensor circuit intermittent operation
P0200 Injector open circuit
P0201 Injector open circuit- #1 cylinder
P0202 Injector open circuit- #2 cylinder
P0203 Injector open circuit- #3 cylinder
P0204 Injector open circuit- #4 cylinder
P0205 Injector open circuit- #5 cylinder
P0206 Injector open circuit- #6 cylinder
P0208 Injector open circuit- #8 cylinder
P0217 Engine overheat
P0218 Transmission overheat
P0219 Engine overrun
P0230 Fuel pump, primary circuit related
P0234 Turbo/supercharger overboost
P0237 Boost pressure sensor circuit low voltage
P0263 Cylinder correction quantity error- #1 cylinder
P0266 Cylinder correction quantity error- #2 cylinder
P0269 Cylinder correction quantity error- #3 cylinder
P0272 Cylinder correction quantity error- #4 cylinder
P0275 Cylinder correction quantity error- #5 cylinder
P0278 Cylinder correction quantity error- #6 cylinder
P0299 Turbo/supercharger supercharge deficiency
P0335 Crankshaft position sensor, “A” circuit related
P0339 Crankshaft position sensor “A” circuit intermittent operation
P0340 Cylinder recognition sensor, “A” circuit related
P0400 EGR flow volume abnormality
P0404 EGR control circuit range/performance
P0405 EGR sensor “A” circuit low voltage
P0406 EGR sensor “A” circuit high voltage
P0407 EGR sensor “B” circuit low voltage
P0408 EGR sensor “B” circuit high voltage
P0500 Vehicle speed sensor, “A” circuit related
P0501 Vehicle speed sensor “A” circuit range/performance
P0504 Brake switch “A”, “B” correlation
P0510 Throttle position switch closed
P0524 Engine oil pressure too low
P0540 Intake air heater “A” circuit
P0544 Exhaust gas temperature sensor, circuit related
P0545 Exhaust gas temperature sensor circuit low voltage
P0546 Exhaust gas temperature sensor circuit high voltage
P0560 Battery voltage
P0605 Engine ECU internal malfunction
P0607 Engine ECU internal malfunction
P0611 EDU malfunction
P0617 Starter relay circuit high voltage
P0627 Fuel pump “A” open control circuit
P0686 Engine ECU power supply relay control circuit low voltage
P0704 Clutch switch input circuit abnormality
P0710 Transmission oil temperature sensor, “A” circuit related
P0715 Turbine speed sensor, “A” circuit related
P0753 Shift solenoid “A” actuation related
P0758 Shift solenoid “B” actuation related
P0850 Parking/neutral switch, input circuit related
P2002 Particulate Matter (PM) capture efficiency at or below specified value
P2031 Exhaust gas temperature sensor, circuit related
P2032 Exhaust gas temperature sensor circuit low voltage
P2033 Exhaust gas temperature sensor circuit high voltage
P2047 Exhaust gas fuel addition valve abnormality
P2120 Accelerator position sensor, switch “D” circuit related
P2121 Accelerator position sensor switch “D” circuit range/performance
P2122 Accelerator position sensor, switch “D” circuit low input
P2123 Accelerator position sensor, switch “D” circuit high input
P2125 Accelerator position sensor, switch “E” circuit related
P2127 Accelerator position sensor, switch “E” circuit low input
P2128 Accelerator position sensor, switch “E” circuit high input
P2138 Accelerator position sensor, switch “D”/”E” circuit voltage correlation
P2226 Atmospheric pressure sensor, circuit related
P2228 Atmospheric pressure sensor circuit low voltage
P2229 Atmospheric pressure sensor circuit high voltage

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:41 am

Posted in DENSO CRS Repair

Black Smoke

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Black smoke: Fuel that has been baked into soot and discharged.

• Black smoke is often referred to as just “smoke”. Black smoke is generated when the injected fuel is poor in oxygen. As the fuel is exposed to high temperatures, thermal breakdown occurs, leaving carbon behind. Black smoke occurs when the injected fuel quantity is too large, or when the air-fuel mixture is rich due to an insufficient quantity of air.

Source of Black Smoke

1 Large Fuel Injection Quantity, Air-fuel mixture becomes rich.
2 Low Intake Air Quantity, Air quantity is insufficient due to air filter clogging.
3 Poor Fuel Atomization, The ratio of fuel to air worsens.
4 Retarded Fuel Injection Timing, Air-fuel mixing time is insufficient.

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:39 am

Posted in DENSO CRS Repair

White Smoke

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White smoke: Uncombusted fuel that has been vaporized and then discharged.

• White smoke is generated when combustion occurs at a relatively low temperature, resulting in the exhaust of uncombusted fuel and oil particles. White smoke is most likely to be generated when combustion chamber temperature
is low.

Source of White Smoke

1 Late Injection, Timing Fuel is injected when the piston is in the down stroke.
2 Cold Engine, Ignition occurs late and combustion is prolonged.
3 Poor Fuel Combustibility
4 Rise and Fall of Oil Pressure, Oil undergoes partial thermal breakdown.

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:34 am

Posted in DENSO CRS Repair

Diesel Knock

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When fuel mixed with air during the ignition lag period (from the time injection begins until the fuel is ignited) reaches ignition temperature, the mixture is combusted in one burst. The pressure in the combustion chamber at this time rises as the quantity of the air-fuel mixture increases. If a large amount of air-fuel mixture is created during the ignition lag period, the pressure in the combustion chamber will rise rapidly. The pressure waves resulting from fuel ignition vibrate the cylinder walls and engine components, which generates noise. The generated noise is called “knocking”. To some extent, knocking is unavoidable in engines that use a self-ignition system.

pic1 128 Diesel Knock

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:32 am

Posted in DENSO CRS Repair

Image Of Combustion Chamber Interior

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With conventional injection methods, because an excessive quantity of fuel was injected in the initial period, the explosion pressure rose excessively, leading to the generation of noise such as engine knocking sounds. To improve this condition through pilot injection, initially only the necessary and adequate quantity of fuel is injected. At the same time, the combustion chamber temperature is raised, and main injection combustion is assisted while working to prevent noise and vibration.

pic1 127 Image Of Combustion Chamber Interior

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:27 am

Higher Injection Quantity Control Precision

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Power output adjustment in a diesel engine is accomplished by regulating the fuel injection quantity. Poor injection quantity control precision leads to increased exhaust gas emissions, noise, and poor fuel economy. For this reason, electronically controlled systems have been developed to ensure high precision injection quantity control.

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:21 am

Higher Injection Timing Control Precision

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Reducing exhaust gas emissions and fuel consumption and optimizing the injection timing are important. It is extremely difficult to achieve the desired exhaust emission reduction levels through methods that adjust the injection timing according to speed (or centrifugal force), such as the conventional mechanical timer. For this reason, electronically controlled systems have been adopted to freely and precisely control the injection timing in accordance with the engine characteristics.

pic1 126 Higher Injection Timing Control Precision

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 3:19 am

Optimized Injection Rates

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The injection rate is the ratio of the changes in the fuel quantity that is injected successively from the nozzle within a given unit of time.

pic1 124 Optimized Injection Rates

As the injection pressure increases, the injection rate increases accordingly. The increase in injection rate leads to an increase in the volume of the air-fuel mixture that is created between the start of injection until ignition (the ignition lag period). Because this mixture is subsequently combusted at once, it creates noise (diesel knock) and NOx. For this reason, it is necessary to appropriately control the injection rate by maintaining a low injection rate at the beginning of injection and supplying a sufficient quantity after the ignition. To meet this need, two-spring nozzles have been adopted and a pilot injection system has recently been developed.

pic1 125 Optimized Injection Rates

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 2:03 am

Higher Injection Pressure

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The fuel that is injected from the nozzle turns into finer particles as the fuel injection pressure increases. This improves combustion and reduces the amount of smoke contained in the exhaust gases. Initially, the maximum injection pressure of the in-line pump (A type) and the distributor pump (VE type) was 60 MPa. Due to advancement in high-pressure applications, there are some recently developed fuel injection systems that inject fuel at a pressure of 100 MPa or higher. The second-generation common rail system injects fuel at an extremely high pressure of 180 MPa.

pic1 123 Higher Injection Pressure

Written by Jack

March 12th, 2019 at 2:02 am

DPNR SYSTEM

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This system reduces the emissions of PM (particulate matter) and NOx. The DPNR catalyst mounted in the center
pipe collects and regenerates PM and reduces NOx all at the same time. The collected PM is handled with combustion
processing during operation.

pic1 122 DPNR SYSTEM

Written by Jack

March 11th, 2019 at 3:18 pm