In two-stroke engines combustion occurs in the region of top dead centre (TDC) of every revolution. Consequently gas exchange also has to be effected once per revolution in the region of bottom dead centre (BCD) and with minimum loss of expansion work of the cylinder gases following combustion.
This implies that escape of gas from the cylinder to exhaust and charging with fresh air from the inlet manifold must occur under the most favourable possible flow conditions over the shortest possible period. In practice the gas exhange or SC AVENGING process in two-stroke engines occupies between 100° and 150° of crank angle (CA) disposed approximately symmetrically about BDC.
Two-stroke engines may be subdivided according to the particular scavenging system used into the following sub-groups.
Two-stroke engines: (a) Loop scavenged engine; (b) Exhaust valve-in-head engine; (c) Opposed piston engine